Copyright & License

The copyright is retained by the author(s) under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  1. Copyright Ownership: Authors typically retain the copyright to their work, unless they transfer it to the journal or publisher through a copyright agreement. It's essential for authors to review the journal's copyright policy before submitting their manuscripts to understand who will hold the copyright to their work after publication.

  2. Open Access and Licensing: Some journals, particularly those operating on an open-access model, apply Creative Commons licenses to published articles. These licenses specify how others can use, distribute, and build upon the work while ensuring proper attribution to the original author(s). Common Creative Commons licenses include CC BY (Attribution), CC BY-SA (Attribution-ShareAlike), and CC BY-NC (Attribution-NonCommercial).

  3. Author Agreements: Authors are often required to sign agreements with the journal or publisher, outlining the terms of publication, copyright ownership, and licensing. These agreements may also address issues such as author responsibilities, ethical considerations, and potential conflicts of interest.

  4. Permissions and Reuse: Authors should be aware of any restrictions on the reuse or distribution of their work imposed by the journal or publisher. For example, some journals may allow authors to share preprints or postprints of their articles on personal websites or institutional repositories, while others may have specific embargoes or restrictions.

  5. Attribution and Citation: Proper attribution and citation practices are essential when reusing or building upon published work. Authors should accurately cite sources and provide credit to the original authors to avoid plagiarism and respect intellectual property rights.